Abstracts. The author analyses childhood as a social and historical phenomenon and considers diversification of the forms and models of growing-up to be the major regularity of the changes. Socialization channels – school and family – are being creolized and the vacant place is being taken by the culture of agemates, youth subcultures, entertainment and entertaining institutions, the Internet and mass media. Disappearance of an adult as a central figure of national psychology of development and an ideal forma as an image of the future and aging – are challenges for cultural, historical and activity-oriented national approaches.
Key words: subculture, childhood, creolisation.